Principles of the Law,

Student Sexual Misconduct: Procedural Frameworks for Colleges and Universities

A partial list of issues to be considered includes reporting procedures; confidentiality; relationships with police and local criminal justice; interim measures and support for complainants; investigation and adjudication; the role of lawyers; the creation and maintenance of records; sanctions or remedies; and appeals. The project will also examine informal resolutions, as well as the nature of hearings. This project consists of ten chapters: First Principles for Procedural Frameworks (Chapter 1); Notice and Clarity of Policies; Consistency of Implementation; Support and Interim Measures (Chapter 2); Reporting of Sexual Assault and Related Misconduct (Chapter 3); Inquiries and Investigations (Chapter 4); Informal Resolution of Sexual-Misconduct Reports and Complaints (Chapter 5); Formal Resolution of Sexual-Misconduct Complaints (Chapter 6); Sanctions (Chapter 7); Appeals (Chapter 8); Integrity of the Process: Confidentiality, Disclosure, Misrepresentation, Retaliation (Chapter 9); and Internal Student Discipline and the Criminal Justice System (Chapter 10).

More details and content summary
Shop individual parts
 

 

  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 1
    Tentative Draft No. 1
    470 pages, 2022, #1PSGMTD1

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section                                                                             Page

    Status at a Glance ............................................................ xviii

    Foreword ............................................................................ xix

    Reporter's Memorandum ................................................... xxi

    Introduction ........................................................................... 1

    CHAPTER 1

    FIRST PRINCIPLES FOR PROCEDURAL FRAMEWORKS

    Introductory Note ................................................................ 19

    § 1.1. Sexual Assault and Misconduct as Threats to
    Student Safety and Educational Opportunity ..................... 19

    § 1.2. Procedures to be Fair, Impartial, and Respect
    Basic Tenets of Due Process ............................................. 23

    § 1.3. Evenhanded Treatment of Complainants and Respondents in Proceedings ............................................. 28

    § 1.4. Balancing Fairness to Complainants and
    Respondents ...................................................................... 29

    § 1.5. Diversity of Institutions of Higher Education ............. 30

    § 1.6. Importance of Flexibility ............................................ 32

    § 1.7. Schools’ Educational Missions ................................. 35

    § 1.8. Procedures Taken as a Whole ................................. 37

    CHAPTER 2

    NOTICE AND CLARITY OF POLICIES; CONSISTENCY OF IMPLEMENTATION; SUPPORT AND INTERIM MEASURES

    § 2.1. Providing Notice of Policies ...................................... 39

    § 2.2. Consistent Application of Policies ............................ 40

    § 2.3. Communicating Policies through Multiple
    Channels ............................................................................ 41

    § 2.4. Policies on Interim Measures ................................... 43

    § 2.5. Providing Support before any Complaint ................. 46

    § 2.6. Providing Support, Accommodation, and
    Protection ........................................................................... 49

    § 2.7. Interim Measures Affecting Only the
    Complainant ....................................................................... 53

    § 2.8. Interim Measures Agreed to by the Parties .............. 55

    § 2.9. Nonconsensual Interim Measures ............................ 57

    § 2.10. Review of Nonconsensual Interim Measures ......... 64

    § 2.11. Support and Accommodation for Respondents ...... 67

    CHAPTER 3

    REPORTING OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AND RELATED MISCONDUCT

    § 3.1. Policies to Encourage Reporting .............................. 69

    § 3.2. Multiple Ways to Report Sexual Misconduct ............ 71

    § 3.3. Encouraging Students to Seek Support and
    Consider Formally Reporting Sexual Misconduct .............. 75

    § 3.4. Respecting Complainants’ Wishes with Respect
    to Investigations ................................................................. 79

    § 3.5. Internal Reporting Policies ....................................... 88

    § 3.5a. Confidential Reporting ............................................ 97

    § 3.5b. Nonconfidential Reporting ...................................... 98

    § 3.6. Non-Campus Resources and Reporting to Law Enforcement ..................................................................... 101

    CHAPTER 4

    INQUIRIES AND INVESTIGATIONS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 105

    § 4.1. Inquiries to Be Impartial, Fair, and
    Context-Sensitive ............................................................. 105

    § 4.2. Prompt Evaluation and Presumption of Full Investigation ..................................................................... 106

    § 4.3. Evenhanded Treatment of Complainants and Respondents .................................................................... 115

    § 4.4. Presumptive Time Frames for Investigation; Notifications about Delays ................................................ 116

    § 4.5. Advance Identification and Training of
    Investigators ..................................................................... 118

    § 4.6. Investigators’ Responsibilities to Be Set Forth ....... 127

    § 4.7. Open-Mindedness in Evaluating Credibility ........... 130

    § 4.8. Regular Training of Investigators ........................... 132

    § 4.9. Parties’ Opportunities to Comment ........................ 134

    CHAPTER 5

    INFORMAL RESOLUTION OF SEXUAL-MISCONDUCT
    REPORTS AND COMPLAINTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 136

    § 5.1. Definition of “Informal Resolution” .......................... 136

    § 5.2. Availability of Informal Resolution Processes ......... 141

    § 5.3. Maintaining Records ............................................... 144

    § 5.4. Complainants’ and Potential Complainants’
    Requests Not to Disclose Identities ................................. 145

    § 5.5. Prompt Response within Reasonable Time
    Limits ................................................................................ 147

    § 5.6. Evenhandedness in Allowing or Excluding
    Advisers ............................................................................ 149

    § 5.7. Respecting Complainant Requests for Informal Resolution ........................................................................ 151

    § 5.8. Informal Resolution Processes to be Voluntary
    and Supervised ................................................................ 154

    § 5.9. Wide Range of Informal Resolution Approaches ... 160

    § 5.10. Confidentiality of Records and Statements; Preservation of Record of Informal Resolution ................ 162

    § 5.11. Options to End Informal Resolution Process and
    Seek Formal Resolution ................................................... 164

    CHAPTER 6

    FORMAL RESOLUTION OF SEXUAL-MISCONDUCT COMPLAINTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 166

    § 6.1. Minimal Due Process Standards ............................ 167

    § 6.2. Notice ..................................................................... 173

    § 6.3. Impartiality .............................................................. 179

    § 6.3a. Use of Single Investigator/Resolver ..................... 193

    § 6.3b. Decisionmakers for Resolving Formal
    Complaints ....................................................................... 204

    § 6.3c. Challenges for Bias .............................................. 206

    § 6.3d. Undergraduates on Hearing Panels ..................... 208

    § 6.4. Fair Opportunity to Contest the Facts ..................... 211

    § 6.4a. Processes to Evaluate Witness Credibility ........... 214

    § 6.4b. Restrictions on Prior-Sexual-History Evidence .... 232

    § 6.4c. Treatment of Respondent’s or Complainant’s
    Silence .............................................................................. 236

    § 6.4d. Challenges in Testifying About Sexual Matters .... 239

    § 6.5. The Role of Advisers for Complainants and Respondents .................................................................... 245

    § 6.6. Encouraging Cooperation of Witnesses ................. 256

    § 6.7. Resolution Based on Evidence Adduced ............... 258

    § 6.8. Standard of Proof ................................................... 262

    § 6.9. Expectations Concerning Confidentiality ................ 301

    § 6.10. Reasonable Promptness in Resolving
    Complaints ....................................................................... 304

    § 6.11. Statement of Reasons .......................................... 307

    § 6.12. Training of Decisionmakers .................................. 309

    CHAPTER 7

    SANCTIONS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 314

    § 7.1. Proportionality, Fairness, and Appropriateness of Sanctions .......................................................................... 315

    § 7.2. Communication to College and University Communities .................................................................... 320

    § 7.3. Procedure for Imposing Sanctions ......................... 322

    § 7.4. Special Procedures for Imposing Most Severe Sanctions .......................................................................... 325

    CHAPTER 8

    APPEALS

    § 8.1. Impartiality and Good Cause .................................. 330

    § 8.2. Procedures for Selecting Decisionmakers ............. 334

    § 8.3. Appeals Equally Available to Complainants and Respondents .................................................................... 336

    § 8.4. Single Level of Appeal ............................................ 340

    § 8.5. Appeals Distinct from Initial Determinations ........... 342

    § 8.6. Written Appellate Decisions .................................... 348

    CHAPTER 9

    INTEGRITY OF THE PROCESS: CONFIDENTIALITY, DISCLOSURE, MISREPRESENTATION, RETALIATION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 350

    § 9.1. Topics to Address Affecting the Integrity of the Proceedings ..................................................................... 351

    § 9.2. Confidentiality ......................................................... 353

    § 9.2a. Confidentiality while Proceedings are Ongoing .... 357

    § 9.2b. Confidentiality once Proceedings are Complete .. 368

    § 9.2c. Enforcing Confidentiality Requirements ............... 374

    § 9.3. Retaliation .............................................................. 377

    § 9.3a. Enforcing Prohibitions on Retaliation ................... 384

    § 9.4. Misrepresentation ................................................... 390

    § 9.5. Informing the Community about the Disciplinary Process ............................................................................ 393

    § 9.5a. Internal Records and Reviews ............................. 397

    § 9.6. Disclosures Concerning Repeat Offenders ............ 398

    CHAPTER 10

    INTERNAL STUDENT DISCIPLINE AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    § 10.1. Independence of School and Criminal
    Processes ......................................................................... 405

    § 10.2. Rebuttable Presumption that School Proceedings
    Go Forward Notwithstanding Concurrent
    Law-Enforcement Activity ................................................. 409

    § 10.3. Evaluating Requests for Delay by Law
    Enforcement ..................................................................... 413

    § 10.4. Preserving Parties’ Rights in Criminal
    Proceedings ..................................................................... 415

    § 10.5. Informing Students How to Obtain Orders of Protection ......................................................................... 424

    § 10.6. Cooperation between Schools and Law
    Enforcement ..................................................................... 425

    Appendix. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 1 .......... 430

    Tentative Draft No. 1 contains all ten Chapters of the project. The membership voted to approve this draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

    470 pages, 2022, #1PSGMTD1E

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section                                                                             Page

    Status at a Glance ............................................................ xviii

    Foreword ............................................................................ xix

    Reporter's Memorandum ................................................... xxi

    Introduction ........................................................................... 1

    CHAPTER 1

    FIRST PRINCIPLES FOR PROCEDURAL FRAMEWORKS

    Introductory Note ................................................................ 19

    § 1.1. Sexual Assault and Misconduct as Threats to
    Student Safety and Educational Opportunity ..................... 19

    § 1.2. Procedures to be Fair, Impartial, and Respect
    Basic Tenets of Due Process ............................................. 23

    § 1.3. Evenhanded Treatment of Complainants and Respondents in Proceedings ............................................. 28

    § 1.4. Balancing Fairness to Complainants and
    Respondents ...................................................................... 29

    § 1.5. Diversity of Institutions of Higher Education ............. 30

    § 1.6. Importance of Flexibility ............................................ 32

    § 1.7. Schools’ Educational Missions ................................. 35

    § 1.8. Procedures Taken as a Whole ................................. 37

    CHAPTER 2

    NOTICE AND CLARITY OF POLICIES; CONSISTENCY OF IMPLEMENTATION; SUPPORT AND INTERIM MEASURES

    § 2.1. Providing Notice of Policies ...................................... 39

    § 2.2. Consistent Application of Policies ............................ 40

    § 2.3. Communicating Policies through Multiple
    Channels ............................................................................ 41

    § 2.4. Policies on Interim Measures ................................... 43

    § 2.5. Providing Support before any Complaint ................. 46

    § 2.6. Providing Support, Accommodation, and
    Protection ........................................................................... 49

    § 2.7. Interim Measures Affecting Only the
    Complainant ....................................................................... 53

    § 2.8. Interim Measures Agreed to by the Parties .............. 55

    § 2.9. Nonconsensual Interim Measures ............................ 57

    § 2.10. Review of Nonconsensual Interim Measures ......... 64

    § 2.11. Support and Accommodation for Respondents ...... 67

    CHAPTER 3

    REPORTING OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AND RELATED MISCONDUCT

    § 3.1. Policies to Encourage Reporting .............................. 69

    § 3.2. Multiple Ways to Report Sexual Misconduct ............ 71

    § 3.3. Encouraging Students to Seek Support and
    Consider Formally Reporting Sexual Misconduct .............. 75

    § 3.4. Respecting Complainants’ Wishes with Respect
    to Investigations ................................................................. 79

    § 3.5. Internal Reporting Policies ....................................... 88

    § 3.5a. Confidential Reporting ............................................ 97

    § 3.5b. Nonconfidential Reporting ...................................... 98

    § 3.6. Non-Campus Resources and Reporting to Law Enforcement ..................................................................... 101

    CHAPTER 4

    INQUIRIES AND INVESTIGATIONS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 105

    § 4.1. Inquiries to Be Impartial, Fair, and
    Context-Sensitive ............................................................. 105

    § 4.2. Prompt Evaluation and Presumption of Full Investigation ..................................................................... 106

    § 4.3. Evenhanded Treatment of Complainants and Respondents .................................................................... 115

    § 4.4. Presumptive Time Frames for Investigation; Notifications about Delays ................................................ 116

    § 4.5. Advance Identification and Training of
    Investigators ..................................................................... 118

    § 4.6. Investigators’ Responsibilities to Be Set Forth ....... 127

    § 4.7. Open-Mindedness in Evaluating Credibility ........... 130

    § 4.8. Regular Training of Investigators ........................... 132

    § 4.9. Parties’ Opportunities to Comment ........................ 134

    CHAPTER 5

    INFORMAL RESOLUTION OF SEXUAL-MISCONDUCT
    REPORTS AND COMPLAINTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 136

    § 5.1. Definition of “Informal Resolution” .......................... 136

    § 5.2. Availability of Informal Resolution Processes ......... 141

    § 5.3. Maintaining Records ............................................... 144

    § 5.4. Complainants’ and Potential Complainants’
    Requests Not to Disclose Identities ................................. 145

    § 5.5. Prompt Response within Reasonable Time
    Limits ................................................................................ 147

    § 5.6. Evenhandedness in Allowing or Excluding
    Advisers ............................................................................ 149

    § 5.7. Respecting Complainant Requests for Informal Resolution ........................................................................ 151

    § 5.8. Informal Resolution Processes to be Voluntary
    and Supervised ................................................................ 154

    § 5.9. Wide Range of Informal Resolution Approaches ... 160

    § 5.10. Confidentiality of Records and Statements; Preservation of Record of Informal Resolution ................ 162

    § 5.11. Options to End Informal Resolution Process and
    Seek Formal Resolution ................................................... 164

    CHAPTER 6

    FORMAL RESOLUTION OF SEXUAL-MISCONDUCT COMPLAINTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 166

    § 6.1. Minimal Due Process Standards ............................ 167

    § 6.2. Notice ..................................................................... 173

    § 6.3. Impartiality .............................................................. 179

    § 6.3a. Use of Single Investigator/Resolver ..................... 193

    § 6.3b. Decisionmakers for Resolving Formal
    Complaints ....................................................................... 204

    § 6.3c. Challenges for Bias .............................................. 206

    § 6.3d. Undergraduates on Hearing Panels ..................... 208

    § 6.4. Fair Opportunity to Contest the Facts ..................... 211

    § 6.4a. Processes to Evaluate Witness Credibility ........... 214

    § 6.4b. Restrictions on Prior-Sexual-History Evidence .... 232

    § 6.4c. Treatment of Respondent’s or Complainant’s
    Silence .............................................................................. 236

    § 6.4d. Challenges in Testifying About Sexual Matters .... 239

    § 6.5. The Role of Advisers for Complainants and Respondents .................................................................... 245

    § 6.6. Encouraging Cooperation of Witnesses ................. 256

    § 6.7. Resolution Based on Evidence Adduced ............... 258

    § 6.8. Standard of Proof ................................................... 262

    § 6.9. Expectations Concerning Confidentiality ................ 301

    § 6.10. Reasonable Promptness in Resolving
    Complaints ....................................................................... 304

    § 6.11. Statement of Reasons .......................................... 307

    § 6.12. Training of Decisionmakers .................................. 309

    CHAPTER 7

    SANCTIONS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 314

    § 7.1. Proportionality, Fairness, and Appropriateness of Sanctions .......................................................................... 315

    § 7.2. Communication to College and University Communities .................................................................... 320

    § 7.3. Procedure for Imposing Sanctions ......................... 322

    § 7.4. Special Procedures for Imposing Most Severe Sanctions .......................................................................... 325

    CHAPTER 8

    APPEALS

    § 8.1. Impartiality and Good Cause .................................. 330

    § 8.2. Procedures for Selecting Decisionmakers ............. 334

    § 8.3. Appeals Equally Available to Complainants and Respondents .................................................................... 336

    § 8.4. Single Level of Appeal ............................................ 340

    § 8.5. Appeals Distinct from Initial Determinations ........... 342

    § 8.6. Written Appellate Decisions .................................... 348

    CHAPTER 9

    INTEGRITY OF THE PROCESS: CONFIDENTIALITY, DISCLOSURE, MISREPRESENTATION, RETALIATION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 350

    § 9.1. Topics to Address Affecting the Integrity of the Proceedings ..................................................................... 351

    § 9.2. Confidentiality ......................................................... 353

    § 9.2a. Confidentiality while Proceedings are Ongoing .... 357

    § 9.2b. Confidentiality once Proceedings are Complete .. 368

    § 9.2c. Enforcing Confidentiality Requirements ............... 374

    § 9.3. Retaliation .............................................................. 377

    § 9.3a. Enforcing Prohibitions on Retaliation ................... 384

    § 9.4. Misrepresentation ................................................... 390

    § 9.5. Informing the Community about the Disciplinary Process ............................................................................ 393

    § 9.5a. Internal Records and Reviews ............................. 397

    § 9.6. Disclosures Concerning Repeat Offenders ............ 398

    CHAPTER 10

    INTERNAL STUDENT DISCIPLINE AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    § 10.1. Independence of School and Criminal
    Processes ......................................................................... 405

    § 10.2. Rebuttable Presumption that School Proceedings
    Go Forward Notwithstanding Concurrent
    Law-Enforcement Activity ................................................. 409

    § 10.3. Evaluating Requests for Delay by Law
    Enforcement ..................................................................... 413

    § 10.4. Preserving Parties’ Rights in Criminal
    Proceedings ..................................................................... 415

    § 10.5. Informing Students How to Obtain Orders of Protection ......................................................................... 424

    § 10.6. Cooperation between Schools and Law
    Enforcement ..................................................................... 425

    Appendix. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 1 .......... 430

    Tentative Draft No. 1 contains all ten Chapters of the project. The membership voted to approve this draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.