Model Penal Code:

Sentencing

This work addresses the many changes in sentencing philosophy and practice that have taken place in the more than 40 years since these matters were first addressed in the Model Code. The project considers the contemporary controversy about the appropriate length of American criminal sentences and the present widespread dissatisfaction with the rules and procedures used to determine them. More information on the Code and Commentaries.

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    Black-Letter of Proposed Final Draft
    #1MPCSPFDBLSF

     

    Black-Letter extracted from Proposed Final Draft

     
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    Proposed Final Draft
    Proposed Final Draft
    685 pages, 2017, #1MPCSPFD

    Project Status at a Glance  xii

    Foreword  xv

    Reporters’ Memorandum  xxi

    CHAPTER 1 BASIC LIABILITY INSURANCE CONTRACT RULES

    § 1. Definitions  1

    Topic 1: Interpretation

    2. Insurance-Policy Interpretation  8

    § 3. The Presumption in Favor of the Plain Meaning of Standard-Form Insurance-Policy Terms  16

    § 4. Ambiguous Terms  30

    Topic 2: Waiver and Estoppel

    § 5. Waiver  47

    § 6. Estoppel  59

    Topic 3: Misrepresentation

    § 7. Misrepresentation  69

    § 8. Materiality Requirement  81

    § 9. Reasonable-Reliance Requirement  88

    CHAPTER 2 MANAGEMENT OF POTENTIALLY INSURED LIABILITY CLAIMS

    Topic 1: Defense

    § 10. Scope of the Right to Defend  101

    § 11. Confidentiality  105

    § 12. Liability of Insurer for Conduct of Defense  111

    § 13. Conditions Under Which the Insurer Must Defend  114

    § 14. Duty to Defend: Basic Obligations  124

    § 15. Reserving the Right to Contest Coverage  132

    § 16. The Obligation to Provide an Independent Defense  141

    § 17. The Conduct of an Independent Defense  147

    § 18. Terminating the Duty to Defend a Legal Action  153

    § 19. Consequences of Breach of the Duty to Defend  162

    § 20. When Multiple Insurers Have a Duty to Defend  174

    § 21. Insurer Recoupment of the Costs of Defense  182

    § 22. Defense-Cost-Indemnification Policies  191

    § 23. The Right to Associate in the Defense  198

    Topic 2: Settlement

    § 24. The Insurer’s Duty to Make Reasonable Settlement Decisions  205

    § 25. The Effect of a Reservation of Rights on Settlement Rights and Duties  222

    § 26. The Effect of Multiple Claimants on the Duty to Make Reasonable Settlement Decisions  236

    § 27. Damages for Breach of the Duty to Make Reasonable Settlement Decisions  239

    § 28. Excess Insurer’s Right of Subrogation  250

    Topic 3: Cooperation

    § 29. The Insured’s Duty to Cooperate  254

    § 30. Consequences of the Breach of the Duty to Cooperate  261

    CHAPTER 3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES REGARDING THE RISKS INSURED

    Topic 1: Coverage

    § 31. Insuring Clauses  271

    § 32. Exclusions  273

    § 33. Timing of Events That Trigger Coverage  282

    Topic 2: Conditions

    § 34. Conditions in Liability Insurance Policies  294

    § 35. Consent or Approval of the Insurer as a Condition  299

    § 36. Notice and Reporting Conditions  303

    § 37. Assignment of Rights Under a Liability Insurance Policy  314

    Topic 3: Application of Limits, Retentions, and Deductibles

    § 38. Policy Limits  320

    § 39. Number of Accidents or Occurrences  322

    § 40. Excess Insurance: Exhaustion and Drop Down  329

    § 41. Indemnification from Multiple Policies: The General Rule  338

    § 42. Allocation in Long-Tail Harm Claims Covered by Occurrence-Based Policies  345

    § 43. Contribution  365

    § 44. The Effect of Partial Settlements on Amounts Owed by Non-Settling Insurers  371

    CHAPTER 4 ENFORCEABILITY AND REMEDIES

    Topic 1: Enforceability

    § 45. Implied-in-Law Terms and Restrictions  377

    § 46. Insurance of Liabilities Involving Aggravated Fault   380

    § 47. Insurance of Known Liabilities  390

    Topic 2: Remedies

    § 48. Remedies Potentially Available  398

    § 49. Damages for Breach of a Liability Insurance Policy  406

    § 50. Liability for Insurance Bad Faith  412

    § 51. Damages for Liability Insurance Bad Faith  420

    Appendix. Black Letter of Proposed Final Draft  429

    The Proposed Final Draft contains Part I, General Provisions; Art. 1 Preliminary; Art. 6 Authorized Disposition of Offenders; Art. 6X Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction; Art. 6A. Sentencing Commission; Art. 6B Sentencing Guidelines; Art. 7 Judicial Sentencing Authority; Art. 305 Prison Release; Correctional Populations Exceeding Capacity. This draft was approved by the membership at the 2017 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and to editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

    685 pages, 2017, #1MPCSPFDE

    Project Status at a Glance  xii

    Foreword  xv

    Reporters’ Memorandum  xxi

    CHAPTER 1 BASIC LIABILITY INSURANCE CONTRACT RULES

    § 1. Definitions  1

    Topic 1: Interpretation

    2. Insurance-Policy Interpretation  8

    § 3. The Presumption in Favor of the Plain Meaning of Standard-Form Insurance-Policy Terms  16

    § 4. Ambiguous Terms  30

    Topic 2: Waiver and Estoppel

    § 5. Waiver  47

    § 6. Estoppel  59

    Topic 3: Misrepresentation

    § 7. Misrepresentation  69

    § 8. Materiality Requirement  81

    § 9. Reasonable-Reliance Requirement  88

    CHAPTER 2 MANAGEMENT OF POTENTIALLY INSURED LIABILITY CLAIMS

    Topic 1: Defense

    § 10. Scope of the Right to Defend  101

    § 11. Confidentiality  105

    § 12. Liability of Insurer for Conduct of Defense  111

    § 13. Conditions Under Which the Insurer Must Defend  114

    § 14. Duty to Defend: Basic Obligations  124

    § 15. Reserving the Right to Contest Coverage  132

    § 16. The Obligation to Provide an Independent Defense  141

    § 17. The Conduct of an Independent Defense  147

    § 18. Terminating the Duty to Defend a Legal Action  153

    § 19. Consequences of Breach of the Duty to Defend  162

    § 20. When Multiple Insurers Have a Duty to Defend  174

    § 21. Insurer Recoupment of the Costs of Defense  182

    § 22. Defense-Cost-Indemnification Policies  191

    § 23. The Right to Associate in the Defense  198

    Topic 2: Settlement

    § 24. The Insurer’s Duty to Make Reasonable Settlement Decisions  205

    § 25. The Effect of a Reservation of Rights on Settlement Rights and Duties  222

    § 26. The Effect of Multiple Claimants on the Duty to Make Reasonable Settlement Decisions  236

    § 27. Damages for Breach of the Duty to Make Reasonable Settlement Decisions  239

    § 28. Excess Insurer’s Right of Subrogation  250

    Topic 3: Cooperation

    § 29. The Insured’s Duty to Cooperate  254

    § 30. Consequences of the Breach of the Duty to Cooperate  261

    CHAPTER 3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES REGARDING THE RISKS INSURED

    Topic 1: Coverage

    § 31. Insuring Clauses  271

    § 32. Exclusions  273

    § 33. Timing of Events That Trigger Coverage  282

    Topic 2: Conditions

    § 34. Conditions in Liability Insurance Policies  294

    § 35. Consent or Approval of the Insurer as a Condition  299

    § 36. Notice and Reporting Conditions  303

    § 37. Assignment of Rights Under a Liability Insurance Policy  314

    Topic 3: Application of Limits, Retentions, and Deductibles

    § 38. Policy Limits  320

    § 39. Number of Accidents or Occurrences  322

    § 40. Excess Insurance: Exhaustion and Drop Down  329

    § 41. Indemnification from Multiple Policies: The General Rule  338

    § 42. Allocation in Long-Tail Harm Claims Covered by Occurrence-Based Policies  345

    § 43. Contribution  365

    § 44. The Effect of Partial Settlements on Amounts Owed by Non-Settling Insurers  371

    CHAPTER 4 ENFORCEABILITY AND REMEDIES

    Topic 1: Enforceability

    § 45. Implied-in-Law Terms and Restrictions  377

    § 46. Insurance of Liabilities Involving Aggravated Fault   380

    § 47. Insurance of Known Liabilities  390

    Topic 2: Remedies

    § 48. Remedies Potentially Available  398

    § 49. Damages for Breach of a Liability Insurance Policy  406

    § 50. Liability for Insurance Bad Faith  412

    § 51. Damages for Liability Insurance Bad Faith  420

    Appendix. Black Letter of Proposed Final Draft  429

    The Proposed Final Draft contains Part I, General Provisions; Art. 1 Preliminary; Art. 6 Authorized Disposition of Offenders; Art. 6X Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction; Art. 6A. Sentencing Commission; Art. 6B Sentencing Guidelines; Art. 7 Judicial Sentencing Authority; Art. 305 Prison Release; Correctional Populations Exceeding Capacity. This draft was approved by the membership at the 2017 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and to editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.<o:p></o:p>