Restatement of the Law,

The Law of American Indians

This work covers the foundational principles of American Indian law. Comprehensive in scope, it provides descriptions of fundamental terms and addresses Indian statutes and treaties, tribal governance, the federal–tribal relationship, and Congressional powers over Indian affairs.

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    Proposed Final Draft
    592 pages, 2021, #1RLAIPFDE

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

    Section                                                                                                                              Page

     

    Project Status at a Glance................................................................................................ xvii

    Foreword.......................................................................................................................... xix

    Reporters’ Memorandum.................................................................................................. xxi

     

    Chapter 1

    FEDERAL–TRIBAL RELATIONS

    Reporters’ Introduction....................................................................................................... 1

         Note on the Foundational Principles of Federal Indian Law......................................... 1

         Historical Note................................................................................................................ 2

         Demographic Note........................................................................................................ 18

         Note on Leading Secondary Materials......................................................................... 20

         Note on Indian-Law Terminology................................................................................ 23

    GENERAL TERMS

    § 1.    Indian....................................................................................................................... 25

    § 2.    Indian Tribe............................................................................................................. 30

    § 3.    Indian Country........................................................................................................ 38

    FEDERAL–TRIBAL RELATIONSHIP

    § 4.    General Federal Trust Relationship with Indian Tribes and Individual Indians…..54

    AMERICAN INDIAN TREATY LAW

    § 5.    Indian Treaties with Indian Tribes........................................................................... 79

    § 6.    Canons of Construction of Indian Treaties............................................................. 96

    FEDERAL LEGISLATION

    § 7.    Congressional Authority........................................................................................ 105

    § 8.    Canon of Construction of Indian-Affairs Statutes................................................ 124

    § 9.    Political-Status Classification................................................................................ 134

     

     

    BREACH-OF-TRUST CLAIMS

    § 10.  Suits by Indian Tribes Against the United States Under the Tucker Act............. 146

     

    Chapter 2

    TRIBAL AUTHORITY

    Reporters’ Introductory Note.......................................................................................... 157

    Definitions

    § 11.    Indian Lands........................................................................................................ 161

    § 12.    Nonmember Lands.............................................................................................. 168

    Subchapter 1 – Tribal Sovereignty in General

    § 13.    Sources of Tribal Authority................................................................................. 169

    § 14.    Scope of Tribal Authority.................................................................................... 178

    § 15.    Federal Statutory Regulation of Tribal Authority............................................... 182

    § 16.    Constitutional Rights of Persons Under Tribal Jurisdiction................................ 188

    Subchapter 2 – The Powers of Indian Tribes

    § 17.    The Power to Establish a Form of Government.................................................. 195

    § 18.    The Power to Define Tribal Membership or Citizenship Criteria........................ 198

    § 19.    The Power to Regulate Domestic Relations........................................................ 204

    § 20.    The Power to Prescribe Rules of Inheritance....................................................... 209

    § 21.    The Power to Tax................................................................................................. 211

    § 22.    The Power to Exclude......................................................................................... 215

    § 23.    The Power to Regulate the Use and Disposition of Property and Natural Resources ………………………………………………………………………………219           

    § 24.    The Power to Enforce Laws................................................................................ 223

    § 25.    Tribal Sovereign Immunity.................................................................................. 227

    § 26.    Immunity of Tribal Officials and Employees in Federal and State Courts......... 234

    § 27.    Civil Regulatory and Adjudicatory Authority over Nonmembers...................... 240

    § 28.    Tribal-Court Exhaustion Rule.............................................................................. 252

     

     

    Chapter 3

    STATE–TRIBAL RELATIONS

    Subchapter 1 – State Authority

    Reporters’ Introductory Note.......................................................................................... 259

    § 29.    State Regulation of Nonmembers in Indian Country.......................................... 262

    § 30.    State Taxation of Nonmembers in Indian Country............................................. 266

    § 31.    State Regulation of Indians and Indian Tribes.................................................... 273

    § 32.    State Taxation of Indians and Indian Tribes....................................................... 278

    § 33.    State Civil Adjudicatory Jurisdiction over Claims Arising in Indian Country.... 284

    § 34.    State Civil Adjudicatory Jurisdiction Under Public Law 280 and Similar Statutes 289

    § 35.    Recognition of Tribal Judgments......................................................................... 297

    § 36.    Intergovernmental Agreements........................................................................... 300

    § 37.    State Immunity from Suit.................................................................................... 302

    Subchapter 2 – The Indian Child Welfare Act and Similar State Laws

    Reporters’ Introductory Note About the Indian Child Welfare Act and Similar State Laws           305

    § 38.    Application of the Indian Child Welfare Act...................................................... 309

    § 39.    Tribal Jurisdiction over Indian Child-Welfare Matters........................................ 316

    § 40.    State-Court Jurisdiction....................................................................................... 317

    § 41.    Obligation to Notify Indian Child’s Parents, Custodians, and Indian Tribes..... 328

    § 42.    Right to Intervene in State-Court Indian Child-Welfare Matters....................... 334

    § 43.    Dismissal of Indian Child-Welfare Matters When Tribe Has Exclusive Jurisdiction 335

    § 44.    Transfer of Indian Child-Welfare Matters When Tribal and State Courts Share Concurrent Jurisdiction......................................................................................................................................... 338

    § 45.    Termination of the Rights of an Indian Parent.................................................... 340

     

     

     

    CHAPTER 4

    TRIBAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Subchapter 1 – Indian Tribes as Economic Regulators

    Reporters’ Introductory Note.......................................................................................... 345

    § 46.    Tribal Regulatory Powers on Indian Lands......................................................... 347

    § 47.    Tribal Adjudicatory Powers on Indian Lands..................................................... 353

    § 48.    Tribal Regulatory and Adjudicatory Authority over the Economic Activity of Nonmembers on Nonmember Lands.......................................................................................................... 354

    § 49.    State Authority.................................................................................................... 358

    Subchapter 2 – Indian Tribes as Economic Actors

    Reporters’ Introductory Note.......................................................................................... 361

    § 50.    Tribal Economic Enterprises................................................................................ 364

    § 51.    Sovereign Immunity of Indian Tribes and Arms of Tribes.................................. 370

    § 52.    Sovereign Immunity of Tribal Corporations Formed Pursuant to the Indian Reorganization Act and the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act........................................................................................ 374

    § 53.    Sovereign Immunity of Tribal Corporations and Other Business Associations Formed Pursuant to Tribal Law........................................................................................................................ 377

    § 54.    Sovereign Immunity of Corporations and Other Business Associations Formed by Indian Tribes Pursuant to State Law……………………………………………………383         

    § 55.    State-Court Subject-Matter Jurisdiction over Actions Arising in Indian Country to Enforce Economic Obligations Entered into by Indian Tribes and Their Economic Enterprises………………………………………………………………………………387

    § 56.    Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions to Enforce Economic Obligations Entered into by Indian Tribes and by Tribal Corporations: Diversity of Citizenship........................................... 398

    § 57. Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions to Enforce Economic Obligations Involving Indian Tribes: Federal Questions............................................................................................................ 405

    § 58. Federal-Court Jurisdiction over Actions Arising Under Federal Indian Common Law: Federal Questions………………………………………………………………...410          

    § 59. Application of Tribal Exhaustion Doctrine in the Federal and State Courts.......... 414

    § 60. Federal Approval of Contracts with Indian Tribes................................................. 418

    Subchapter 3 – Indian Gaming

    Reporters’ Introductory Note.......................................................................................... 420

    § 61. Indian Lands........................................................................................................... 422

    § 62. Preemption of State Jurisdiction............................................................................. 425

    § 63. Class II Gaming...................................................................................................... 429

    § 64. Class III Gaming.................................................................................................... 437

    § 65. Management Contracts........................................................................................... 441

    § 66. After-Acquired Lands............................................................................................ 444

    § 67. Tribal Sovereign Immunity Under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act................. 447

     

    CHAPTER 5

    INDIAN COUNTRY CRIMINAL JURISDICTION

    Reporters’ Introductory Note.......................................................................................... 451

    § 68. Indian Country....................................................................................................... 456

    § 69. Indian Status........................................................................................................... 460

    § 70. Scope of Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country..................................... 462

    § 71. Scope of State Criminal Jurisdiction in Indian Country......................................... 474

    § 72. Federal Statutory Authorization of State Jurisdiction over Indian Country Crimes…………………………………………………………………………………..478

    § 73. Scope of Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction..................................................................... 481

    § 74. Constitutional Rights of Persons Subject to Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction.............. 485

    § 75. Federal Habeas Rights of Persons Detained by Indian Tribes............................... 487

    § 76. Double Jeopardy..................................................................................................... 489

     

    CHAPTER 6

    NATURAL RESOURCES

    Reporters’ Introductory Note.......................................................................................... 491

    Subchapter 1 – Indian Land and Property

    § 77. Original Indian Title............................................................................................... 494

    § 78. Vested Indian Property Interests............................................................................ 499

    § 79. Federal Restrictions on Alienation......................................................................... 502

    § 80. Tribal Natural Resources......................................................................................... 505

    § 81. Acquisition of Land in Trust by the United States................................................ 511

    Subchapter 2 – Hunting and Fishing

    § 82. On-Reservation Lands and Resources.................................................................... 514

    § 83. Off-Reservation Hunting and Fishing Rights........................................................ 516

    § 84. Federal Authority to Regulate Tribal Hunting and Fishing Rights........................ 524

    § 85. Tribal Authority to Regulate Hunting and Fishing on Indian Lands..................... 528

    Subchapter 3 – Water Rights

    § 86. Reserved Water Rights on Indian Reservations..................................................... 529

    § 87. Priority Date of Reserved Indian Water Rights..................................................... 533

    § 88. Reserved Rights to Groundwater........................................................................... 534

    § 89. Purposes of the Reservation................................................................................... 535

    § 90. Quantifying Indian Reservation Water Rights....................................................... 538

    § 91. Jurisdiction.............................................................................................................. 540

     

    Appendix. Black Letter of Proposed Final Draft....................................................... 543

                           

     

     

    The Proposed Final Draft contains the entire project: Chapter 1, Federal-Tribal Relations; Chapter 2, Tribal Authority; Chapter 3, State-Tribal Relations; Chapter 4, Tribal Economic Development; Chapter 5, Indian County Criminal Jurisdiction; and Chapter 6, Natural Resources. The membership voted to approve the Proposed Final Draft at the 2021 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.