By providing generous and thoughtful philanthropic support to The American Law Institute’s Second Century Campaign, all donors are helping to ensure that ALI can continue to support the rule of law for the next 100 years. The profiles below highlight just a few of our donors. Please visit this page again, as more profiles will be added throughout the campaign.
ALI members Judith Miller and Peter Buscemi are one of the Institute’s many married member-couples. Elected to the ALI in 1992 and 2002, respectively, they have made a significant contribution to the Institute’s work by volunteering countless hours of their time and intellect, as well as significant financial resources. As the ALI approaches its 100th anniversary, Judith and Peter have demonstrated their continued commitment to the ALI’s future by making a generous contribution to our Second Century Campaign, and the ALI could not be more grateful.
Peter, a partner at Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP until his retirement at the end of 2015, built a distinguished career in Washington, D.C., as a litigator with extensive experience in appellate work, arguing cases before the Supreme Court and in federal and state appellate courts. After graduating from Columbia College and Columbia Law School, Peter began his career as a law clerk to Judge Carl McGowan of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, who was also a dedicated member and Council member of the Institute.
Judith, a graduate of Beloit College and Yale Law School, clerked for Judge Harold Leventhal of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit and U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Potter Stewart, before serving in the Department of Defense. In 1979, she joined Williams and Connolly LLP, where she remained until 1994 when she was confirmed as General Counsel of the U.S. Department of Defense. Judith returned to Williams and Connolly in 2000 until 2006, when she joined Bechtel Group for four years as Senior Vice President and General Counsel.
Today, Judith dedicates much of her time to serving on nonprofit and corporate boards—including serving on ALI’s Council since 2010. At the ALI, she has also served on several committees and projects, including as an Adviser on the recently completed Principles of the Law, Compliance and Enforcement for Organizations and Restatement of the Law, The Foreign Relations Law of the United States projects, as well as on the ongoing Principles of the Law, Government Ethics project.
When asked why she and Peter have dedicated so much of their time to the Institute, Judith explained, “I believe that the ALI’s work is a key to maintaining the bedrock of our American democracy, and to our courts functioning effectively to protect rights within that democracy. The Institute contributes extraordinarily to sustaining both the vibrancy of the rule of law in our country and to making it fair and just. The diversity of participants and views that I first observed with Judge Leventhal is truly central to every single project that the Institute has taken on. The reliability and helpfulness of our work stem from that diversity—geographic diversity, ethnic diversity, and professional diversity—which allows people to look at the broad picture, instead of just being narrowly channeled in a particular part of the law. That's what attracted me to the ALI and that is what has kept us both involved for all these years.”
Judith and Peter remain steadfast supporters of ALI’s work, having attended nearly every Annual Meeting since their elections to the Institute. In fact, many members will recognize Judith from Annual Meetings, as she has chaired many project sessions, leading members through careful deliberation and debate on complex topics, including International Commercial and Investor-State Arbitration and the Institute’s first project in partnership with the European Law Institute, Principles for a Data Economy, an important project completed in 2021 with aspects that Judith expects to see in projects that the ALI will undertake in its second century. “I definitely think the work of the ALI, going forward, is going to be even more important than it has been in the last almost 100 years,” said Judith. “It will likely be tied to globalization and technology advances, and also, perhaps more importantly, to our ever evolving and increasingly sophisticated ways of communicating, sometimes it seems almost instantaneously. The ALI will have to continue to grapple with topics at the cutting edge of legal scholarship and practice. The Institute is, and will continue to be, a unique entity to do this work. We bring together a diverse group of people, and we encourage collegial yet spirited debate, not only to reflect on what the rules are but also on where they should be going.”
It’s the Institute’s practice of bringing together the wisdom of its independent membership, and not allowing outside influence that would seek to sway the outcome of a project, that drives Judith and Peter to contribute to the Institute. “One of the great strengths of the ALI, and why the Institute’s work is so influential, is its independence,” Judith said. She continued, “It takes funding to be able to maintain that independence. We have to compensate Reporters, who spend amazing amounts of time drafting the materials—whether it's Principles, Restatements, or other kinds of projects that we've engaged in. We have to be able to provide financial support to members who work outside of the private sector and may not have the means to come to our project meetings, in order to ensure a diversity of views in all of our work. And in today's world, where publishing revenue is no longer as reliable as it once was, we want to operate in a way that makes it absolutely clear that we are not beholden to anyone in the course of developing these projects. Independence is the key goal, and charitable contributions from members are central to sustaining that independence and the genuinely important work that the Institute does.”
The American Law Institute is deeply grateful to Judith and Peter for their incredibly generous contribution to the Second Century Campaign, as well as for their time, energy, wisdom, and commitment to the ALI and its projects for nearly 30 years.
Elected to The American Law Institute in 1990, Andrew Hendry is a Life Member of the Institute. During his more than 30 years as a member, he has been actively involved in many of ALI’s projects, which is no small feat, considering that he served as Colgate-Palmolive Company’s Chief Legal Officer for more than 24 years before retiring in 2015. It surprised us to learn that prior to law school, he wasn’t sure what direction his graduate work or his career would take. Andy explained, “Although, I always had an interest in law, when I finished college, I really didn’t know what I wanted to do. It was either going to be law school or business school, and I decided on law in part because a law degree is good to have, even if you don’t end up as a lawyer.”
His choice to attend law school was a fortunate one for ALI. When asked what drew him to the Institute, he said, “My relationship with ALI began in the late ’80s. At the time, I had just become the general counsel of Unisys, and I was working with a couple of people who were ALI members: Harvey Pitt, who went on to become the head of the SEC, and Hank Ruth, who served as the acting Watergate prosecutor. They were both people whom I admired a lot and enjoyed working with, so when they suggested that I would enjoy becoming a member of the ALI, I was excited to be nominated.”
A practicing lawyer for more than 35 years, he has lent his wisdom and direction to numerous projects, guidance that he continues to provide today. He is currently serving on the Restatement of the Law, Corporate Governance project, and was also an Adviser on the recently completed project, Principles of the Law, Compliance and Enforcement for Organizations. ALI counts itself lucky to be the recipient of so much of Andy’s time at project meetings and the Annual Meeting. “Attending ALI’s meetings is a very different experience because you’re not just sitting there, listening to people talk to you; you’re actually being a participant,” he explained, when asked why he takes the time to attend. “Even if you’re not actively working on a project, you get to participate in it. If you have strong feelings about some aspect of a project, you get to have your say-so or make a motion. For my part, I thought I could bring a perspective to things that maybe some of the lawyers who come out of the academic environment or the law-firm environment or the prosecutorial environment wouldn’t see. That diversity of viewpoint is very important. For example, over the last four or five years, there has been a concerted effort by ALI leadership to bring in more chief legal officers, general counsels, senior in-house attorneys, and I think that’s very, very wise for the organization. Having that part of the bar participating in this work is critical to getting the answers right.”
In addition to the time he has spent on ALI’s projects, Andy has for been actively involved in helping ALI reach its fundraising goals—as a long-time donor, member of ALI’s Development Committee, and a key cochair of the Institute’s 1990 Life Member Class Gift Campaign. Under Andy’s leadership, the Class of 1990 raised over $125,000. The ALI is incredibly grateful for his ongoing support and leadership in these efforts. When asked why the Institute is a priority to him, he explained, “ALI has been around for almost 100 years now, and in that time the world has changed significantly, but ALI’s process and results have stayed almost the same—meaning that the organization consistently puts out work that is of high quality, that is respected by the bar and the courts and legislatures, and that improves the administration of justice. That is an incredible achievement. As the world continues to change, we need The American Law Institute to remain constant and keep doing the great work it’s been doing. That work takes a lot of money, and with publishing revenue no longer a given, ALI relies increasingly on the generosity of its members for funding.”
On the Institute’s mission and its future, he continued “ALI is unique in the fact that it’s not partisan. I personally feel that it has been unfortunate that more and more of our organizations that focus on our national legal issues do it from a partisan point of view. They’re trying to reach a certain conclusion, and the ALI doesn’t do that. The ALI goes in and takes a look at the situation and tries to capture what the learning is on it. If they ever try to suggest anything, through Principles of the Law publications, it is by way of suggestion as an improvement, and not to achieve either a conservative conclusion or progressive conclusion. I think that is critical to the health of law in this country, the health of the legal profession, and just the health of the country in general.”
Andy was born in Brooklyn and grew up in the suburbs of New York City. After graduating from Georgetown University, he earned his law degree from the New York University School of Law. Andy began his legal career first as an associate at the law firm Battle Fowler, and then as an Assistant Staff Judge Advocate in the U.S. Air Force. Prior to his time at Colgate, Andy also worked at Reynolds Metals Company, the Burroughs Corporation, and as General Counsel of Unisys Corporation, which at the time was one of the largest computer companies in the world.
Although he is retired, Andy continues to dedicate his time to many important pursuits, including serving on the North Carolina Criminal Justice Education and Training Standards Commission—which sets standards for policing in the state—and as a Lifetime Trustee of the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law.
The American Law Institute is especially grateful to Andy for his time and commitment to ALI and our projects over the years, and is honored that he has as made the Institute a priority in his philanthropic giving through a generous donation to our Second Century Fund.
David F. Levi became The American Law Institute’s 10th president in 2017. However, his work with ALI began long before he was elected to lead the Institute.
David was elected to ALI in 1991 and to the Council in 2005. He previously served as an Adviser to ALI’s Federal Judicial Code Revision and Aggregate Litigation projects and is currently serving as an Adviser on the Principles of the Law, Student Sexual Misconduct: Procedural Frameworks for Colleges and Universities, as well as on numerous ALI committees.
In addition to his role as ALI president, David is currently the Levi Family Professor of Law and Judicial Studies and Director of the Bolch Judicial Institute. He was previously the dean of Duke Law School from 2007 to 2018. Prior to this appointment, he was the chief judge for the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California with chambers in Sacramento. He was appointed U.S. attorney by President Ronald Reagan in 1986 and a U.S. district judge by President George H. W. Bush in 1990. It was during this time that he was elected to the Institute.
When asked why he has dedicated so much time to ALI over the years, he explained, “If you look at my career, it’s not a surprising commitment, but there’s an extra element to it that wouldn't be perhaps entirely obvious. After I became a judge in 1990, I very quickly started getting assignments from the circuit to do either law reform or committee work. I found myself the chair of the Ninth Circuit Task Force on Race, Religious and Ethnic Fairness in the courts. Then, I went onto the Civil Rules Committee, and that became a very, very important part of my life. I served on that committee and the standing committee on the rules of practice and procedure in various capacities for nearly 20 years.”
He continued, “That work, and the work of the ALI—as we work through Restatements, particularly the black letter, comments, and public comments– very much parallel one another. So, it’s something that I know a great deal about and that I believe in. It’s a deliberative process that I’m very familiar with and respect. The idea of bringing together academics and judges and lawyers and having them work through a product over a time, that’s a process that I’m very committed to.”
David served as chair of the Civil Rules Advisory Committee from 2000 to 2003, and chair of the Standing Committee on the Rules of Practice and Procedure from 2003 to 2007. He was reappointed to serve as the academic member of the standing committee from 2009 to 2015. Additionally, he was the first president and a founder of the Milton L. Schwartz American Inn of Court, now the Schwartz-Levi American Inn of Court, at the King Hall School of Law, University of California at Davis. He authored the report of the Ninth Circuit Task Force on Race, Religious, and Ethnic Fairness as chair. He was president of the Ninth Circuit District Judges Association from 2003 to 2005.
In addition to his service to the Institute, and his generous contribution to our Second Century Campaign, David previously provided for the Institute’s through the establishment of the Daniel J. Meltzer Fund, which was created to provide the current and future ALI directors with the resources necessary to execute special initiatives that will further the Institute’s important and influential work of clarifying and improving the law for the better administration of justice. Dan and David were first cousins and close friends, growing up four houses apart and attending school as classmates all the way from nursery school through Harvard College. Together they shared a love for their family and the law, as well as a deep commitment to the Institute.
“Dan was an extraordinary person and lawyer who is remembered for his intellect, for the rigor, pragmatism, and integrity of his legal analysis, and for his generosity, kindness, and commitment to teaching, scholarship, and public service. He was dedicated to law reform and was looking forward to serving as ALI’s Director, so establishing the Daniel J. Meltzer Fund to honor and continue Dan’s legacy of support of ALI seemed like the right fit,” Said David on the establishment of the fund.
David explained why it was important to him now to contribute to the ALI’s Second Century Fund, saying, “Going forward, as we think about some of the things the Institute might do, you realize that it will stretch our financial resources very considerably. Nobody knows for sure what the revenue that we count on today will look like in 10 or 20 years. The publishing world is a difficult economic model right now, and the Institute is very dependent on the publishing revenue that it gets from its Restatements. This highlights the need for some significant fund raising.”
He continued, “We live in a globalized world. Therefore, in our second century, we’re going to want to continue to work internationally, likely more than we’ve done so in the past. This is a tremendous opportunity for ALI to influence international law, but the work will be costly.”
A native of Chicago, David earned his A.B. in history and literature, magna cum laude, from Harvard College. He entered Harvard's graduate program in history, specializing in English legal history and serving as a teaching fellow in English history and literature. He graduated Order of the Coif in 1980 from Stanford Law School, where he was also president of the Stanford Law Review. Following graduation, he was a law clerk to Ben C. Duniway of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, and then to Lewis F. Powell Jr. of the Supreme Court of the United States.
In 2007, David was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. From 2010 to 2013, he served on the board of directors of Equal Justice Works. In 2014, he was appointed chair of the American Bar Association's Standing Committee on the American Judicial System, and in 2015, he was named co-chair of the North Carolina Commission on the Administration of Law and Justice. He is the co-author of Federal Trial Objections (James Publishing 2002). At Duke Law, he has taught courses on judicial behavior, ethics, and legal history. He recently served on President Biden’s Presidential Commission on the Supreme Court of the United States.
The ALI is forever grateful to David for his time and wisdom through the years as well as for his generosity that is helping ensure that ALI may continue our work for another century.
Michael Traynor has shown by example the importance of giving back through service to organizations like The American Law Institute. He was elected to ALI in 1972 and to ALI Council in 1985. He served as ALI President from 2000 to 2008, the eighth person to hold that office and the first president from the West Coast.
Michael took office in the most difficult way (when then-President Charles Alan Wright died unexpectedly) and dedicated himself to leading the ALI into the 21st century.
One of Michael’s first events as ALI president took place in London, England, at a reception to celebrate the increased globalization and international influence of ALI’s work. During his tenure, ALI finished and also began some of the most important work of its history. As president, he encouraged the Institute both to assume appropriate responsibility in the international community, and to make sure that ALI understood that there was a great world from which we should draw ideas and colleagues.
“The ALI is a prized institution in the life of our country,” said Michael. “We need to keep it that way. It is an oasis for people with sometimes very different points of view. We have a grand opportunity to participate and exchange and learn from distinguished judges, academics, and lawyers, including foreign members. That opportunity includes working actively on matters that are within as well as outside your particular specialty, and simply learning and participating in matters that interest you but that you're not necessarily a specialist in.”
In 2011, ALI awarded Michael the Distinguished Service Award, given from time to time to a member who, over many years, has played a major role in the Institute. While he has certainly undertaken significant responsibility in several institutional roles—including president, Council member, and officer—he also has given additional time as an Adviser or participant on several projects. He currently serves as Adviser for Restatement of the Law Third, Conflict of Laws, and previously participated on completed projects Restatement of the Law Fourth, The Foreign Relations Law of the United States (Jurisdiction); Restatement of the Law Third, Restitution and Unjust Enrichment; Restatement of the Law Third, Unfair Competition; for both the Products Liability and Apportionment of Liability segments of Restatement of the Law Third, Torts; and for the 1988 Revisions to the Restatement of the Law Second, Conflict of Laws.
When asked about his continued involvement in ALI projects, Michael explained, “In a time of great political dissension and other polarization, this is one place you can come and have your view respected and considered, and to learn from others in a very courteous and productive discussion. It has been and is a great privilege to participate in ALI’s varied projects, and I learn something new and get to know new colleagues at every meeting. The ALI also affords us the welcome chance to take a kindness break from the current frenzy and strife in our country and enjoy and appreciate each other’s company.”
Michael’s professional and public service is not limited to the work of the Institute. He was a member of the committee of volunteer lawyers that preceded the creation in 1971 of the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund (now known as Earthjustice), and served as a trustee, and board chair, and member of the Earthjustice Council. He is an Honorary Life Trustee of Earthjustice and of the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the Leadership Council of the Environmental Law Institute, and a past president of the Bar Association of San Francisco. In 1995, Michael was recognized as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science for research and publication on issues at the intersection of science and law in biotechnology, the environment, and information technology. He is also a fellow of the American Academy of Appellate Lawyers and the California Academy of Appellate Lawyers.
In 2004, he received the John P. Frank Outstanding Lawyer Award from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. It was given in recognition of outstanding character and integrity; dedication to the rule of law; proficiency as a trial and appellate lawyer; success in promoting collegiality among members of the bench and bar; and a lifetime of service to the federal courts of the Ninth Circuit.
As the ALI approaches its 100th Anniversary, Michael shared what he hopes to see from the Institute in the next 100 years, “I would like us strengthen our ability to address important public law issues. It would be heartening to see a room full of wonderfully diverse and dedicated judges, academics, and lawyers, foreign and American, with different perspectives and backgrounds. It would be useful also to strengthen our ability to help pay the travel and expenses of eligible participants who could not otherwise attend. I would also like to see some retrospective work on and systematic assessment of the unique and distinct contributions The American Law Institute has made, and to see a plan of action for how the second century is going to begin in a marvelously productive and constructive way.”
A native of California, Michael graduated from the University of California at Berkeley with a B.A. in Economics, served two years in the U.S. Marine Corps, and received a J.D. from Harvard Law School. After serving as a Deputy Attorney General of the State of California and as Special Counsel to the California Senate Committee on Local Government, he joined Cooley in 1963, became a partner in 1969, then senior counsel, and retired in 2008. He is now senior counsel at Cobalt LLP.
Michael’s influence on the legal profession and ALI has been profound. The Institute is tremendously thankful to Michael for his support of the Second Century campaign. At his last Annual Dinner as ALI President, incoming President Roberta Cooper Ramo said of Michael, “He is a first-rate advocate, not only for his clients, but for the environment, for the justice system, for The American Law Institute, and for our democracy.”
“I believe that if you are committed to an organization, you give of yourself, your ideas, what you can provide in terms of leadership and organization,” said Michael when asked why he contributed to ALI’s Second Century Campaign. “If you have the financial capacity, you give what you can financially, as well as of yourself personally. And for this organization particularly that’s important because our dues are relatively modest; they don't finance completely all our good work. We depend on publication revenues, investment revenues, and so forth. We can’t count on those for a long-term future, so we need to build the organization where we have less dependence on different sources of revenue such as publications. Strengthening our ability to make our publications free at a time when people are seeking free access to important information would help our mission to simplify and clarify the law, our profession, and our country, and that takes money and support. I would like to see ourselves get to the point where we are completely financially independent. Achieving that goal would enable us also to take on projects of greater public law significance and international significance, and make them available, not only within this country but also to judges, academics, lawyers, policy-making groups, public and private, educational institutions, and other relevant institutions in various countries across the world.”
Michael lives in Berkeley, California, with his wife Shirley W. Traynor, a retired clinical psychologist. Married in 1956, they have three children and four grandchildren.
Ann and Dan Girard are no strangers to the work of The American Law Institute. Both are experienced lawyers who were first introduced to the Restatements and Model Codes in law school. Dan became a member of ALI in 2006, and was elected to its Council in 2019.
Ann began her career at Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison. This is where she and Dan met, “We met in the elevator as first year associates at Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison. Fortunately, the firm spanned several floors, and we had a chance to get acquainted on the way to the lobby.” Ann then went on to serve as western regional counsel at Hitachi America for more than 10 years, where she was chief legal counsel for the company's largest business unit. After that, she joined QuickLogic as general counsel. She also served as president of the San Francisco Bay Area Chapter of the Association of Corporate Counsel. Ann received her B.A. from University of California, Berkeley and her J.D. from University of California, Hastings College of Law, serving as managing editor for the Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly.
Ann currently works with education-focused organizations. Drawn to this cause because “access to education, libraries and well-funded schools are great equalizers for everyone in our community.” She is a co-founder, board member, and business advisor for Raiizz, an online fundraising platform supporting schools and nonprofits by providing a marketplace where users buy and sell from each other, while donating a portion of their sales proceeds. Additionally, she is commissioner for the County of San Mateo and a member of the Committee on the Status of Women. She is the past president of the San Mateo Public Library Foundation and currently serves on the Board of Directors. Previously, she worked in leadership positions in arts and education, including as president of the San Francisco Opera Guild and trustee for the San Francisco Conservatory of Music.
Dan received his B.A. from Cornell University and his J.D. from University of California, Davis School of Law, where he was an editor of the UC Davis Law Review. After graduating from law school, Dan joined Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison’s corporate and securities practice. While he enjoyed his work, he wanted to represent a broader client base, and decided to interview with a class action firm, where he found an immediate fit. Dan was a partner at Lieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein before founding Girard Sharp in 1995. He told us that he “wanted to start a firm that would offer dedicated, professional representation to average Americans.” He continued, “I don’t know of any other legal system that provides the same opportunity for ordinary citizens to litigate on an equal footing with major corporations and institutional interests. It’s a tremendous privilege and responsibility. An important part of my work for the past 25 years has been finding and motivating people who share the same passion for our practice, and I’ve never been more excited about the group we have and the work we’re doing.”
Dan is a renowned expert on class actions and has served as lead attorney in successful cases brought under a range of federal and state laws, emphasizing financial services matters. Over the past few years, he served as lead attorney in several cases brought on behalf of retail investors, including the Peregrine Financial, Provident Royalties and Woodbridge Investments litigation. He also led a class action to reform the Government of Guam’s income tax processing practices. Dan also oversees all the matters handled by the firm and serves as mentor and advisor to other lawyers at the firm.
Dan’s practice is concentrated in federal court, and he has been honored to contribute to the federal court rulemaking committees. Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist appointed him to the United States Judicial Conference Advisory Committee on Civil Rules, where he served from 2004 to 2010. Chief Justice John G. Roberts appointed him to the Standing Committee on Practice and Procedure in 2015 and reappointed him for a second term in 2018. He served on the Advisory Board of the Institute for the Advancement of the American Legal System from 2007 to 2016. He has been a long-standing member of the American Bar Association’s Business Law Section, Committee on Business and Corporate Litigation.
With all of his commitments, the ALI considers itself lucky that Dan dedicated so much of his time to the Institute and our projects. When asked why ALI is a priority, he said, “Alexis de Toqueville recognized the importance of associations to the preservation of American liberties and democratic values. ‘In democratic countries the science of association is the mother science; the progress of all the others depends on the progress of that one.’ ALI brings together an extraordinary and diverse group of accomplished legal thinkers dedicated to improving American law. By supporting ALI, we contribute as members of the legal profession to American civic society.”
Indeed, we are incredibly thankful for the time that he spends on our projects, and his wise direction provided on all of our projects as a Council member. We are also humbled that he and Ann have made such a tremendously generous gift to our Second Century campaign.
Dan explained why the Girards decided to support ALI’s Second Century fund, saying, “It’s a privilege to contribute to this historic campaign. I can’t think of a more important cause at this time in our history than supporting an association dedicated to maintaining the rule of law.” He continued, “Ann and I hope that ALI in the next 100 years continues to serve its mission of improving the law, and builds on its reputation for excellence by incorporating the contributions of the most talented legal thinkers from every area of legal profession.”
The American Law Institute is tremendously grateful for the support of the Girards and all that they have contributed to the rule of law and to education throughout their careers.
Victor E. Schwartz is a familiar face to ALI members new and old, having attended numerous project meetings, Annual Meetings, and even helping to introduce new members to the Institute at member receptions.
A life member of the Institute, Victor has been involved in every portion of the Restatement Third of Torts, either as an Adviser or in the Members Consultative Group. Completed portions of this Restatement for which Victor served as an Adviser include Products Liability, Apportionment of Liability, Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm, and Liability for Economic Harm. He currently serves as an Adviser for two Restatement of the Law Third, Torts projects: Concluding Provisions and Remedies.
“The ALI is a great fountain for learning after law school,” said Victor about his involvement in the Institute’s work. “One learns as one participates in the development of Restatements of Law, Principles projects, and other ALI work products. One learns from ALI Leadership and Reporters. One learns from other ALI Members. One builds lifelong friendships of mutual respect, including with those whose views about the law may sharply differ from your own.”
Victor received his B.A. from Boston University and went on to earn his J.D. from Columbia Law School. Prior to entering the full-time practice of law, he was a professor and dean at the University of Cincinnati College of Law. He currently serves on the College of Law’s Board of Visitors. In 2012, the College established the Professor Victor E. Schwartz Chair in Tort Law. Victor is a frequent speaker at judicial education state and university programs. He continues to lecture to law students on tort law and how the court system interacts with the law. A co-author of the most widely used torts casebooks in the United States, Prosser, Wade and Schwartz’s Torts (14th ed. 2020), Victor continues to write law review articles on almost every major subject of modern tort and civil justice policy issues, which are frequently cited in state and federal courts. Victor recounted how he met Dean Wade through the ALI, “The ALI Membership provided a gateway me to meet and team up with Restatement of Torts Second Reporter and brilliant scholar, Dean John W. Wade. Dean Wade enlisted me, a young and not well-known professor, as the third co-author of Prosser, Wade & Schwartz’s Torts. Co-authoring that casebook opened many opportunities in my professional life.”
When asked what drew him to the field of tort law after law school, Victor explained, “I had two Columbia law professors whose views about tort law and teaching style were very different. Professor Willis M. Reese, a prominent ALI member, projected tort law as hard rule, albeit with some ambiguity. Professor Alfred E. Hill saw torts law as a foggy mist and only ambiguity. My own teaching style combined both perspectives. I added a bit of my own. Both professors were entertainers and saw students as persons were bored of school for 16 years (or more) and needed that element in class. I totally agreed with that perspective. We are there to serve the students not the other way around.”
Today, Victor is a partner in the Washington office and co-chair of the Public Policy Practice Group at Shook Hardy & Bacon, where he has an active appellate practice and advises product manufacturers on liability prevention, litigation and public relations issues. He has blended scholarship with practical results, leading more than 200 state initiatives, passing bills in Congress, and filing amicus briefs that have affected U.S. Supreme Court cases.
Victor’s work in tort law intertwines with other institutions and organizations. While working for the U.S. Department of Commerce, he served as chair of the Federal Inter-Agency Task Force on Product Liability and the Federal Inter-Agency Council on Insurance. He was the principal author of the Uniform Product Liability Act and the Federal Risk Retention Act, and received the Professional Excellence Award from the Secretary of Commerce.
Looking to ALI’s next 100 years Victor expressed the hope, “that it is a positive influence on the law and encourages respect for the law among persons who may not agree on its content.”
The American Law Institute is forever grateful to Victor for all that he gives to the Institute’s work and membership.
The American Law Institute counts itself lucky to have Ken Frazier as a member (since 1996) and as a Council member (since 2003). Through the years, the Institute has been fortunate to have many of our projects benefit from his keen insight, not only as a Council member, but also an Adviser on the recently completed Restatement of the Law, Charitable Nonprofit Organizations, as well as on the ongoing Restatement of the Law, Corporate Governance and Principles of the Law, Policing projects. As we move toward our 100th Anniversary celebration, we couldn’t be more honored that he and his wife, Andréa, have made the Institute a part of their legacy through a donation to our Second Century Campaign from the Andréa W. and Kenneth C. Frazier Family Foundation.
Andréa was born in New York City, where she graduated from Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts and was also a member of the Youth Symphony Orchestra of New York. She earned her B.A. in political science and international relations from Tufts University and her M.A. in international relations and international law from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Ken was born in Philadelphia. He graduated from Northeast High School, earned his B.A. at Pennsylvania State University followed by his J.D. at Harvard Law School. (For details, listen to Ken’s oral history podcast episode.)
After graduating, Andréa worked at New York University School of Law, where she met Ken, as she describes, “Ken and I met when I was an administrator at NYU School of Law, and I hosted programs nationwide in cities where our students wanted to work. Ken attended the program I hosted in Philadelphia and interviewed candidates for his law firm … and the rest, as they say, is history.”
She then became a recruitment administrator at Fox Rothschild, and later managed recruitment programs at Cigna. In addition, she started her own interior design firm where she specialized in designing residential, commercial, and historical houses, including the homes of Betsy Ross and George Washington. Andréa was an adjunct professor at St. Joseph’s University where she taught international law and politics.
After law school, Ken began working at Drinker Biddle & Reath in Philadelphia. In 1988, he became a founding board member of the Cornerstone Christian Academy in Philadelphia where he continues serving today.
The Fraziers are particularly proud of their founding and support of Cornerstone Academy in Philadelphia. Andréa explained, “Cornerstone Christian Academy is very important to us because it provides children from under-served and under-resourced areas in Philadelphia with an opportunity to get a better education. We understand firsthand the impact that education can have on one’s life. Ken and I were the beneficiaries of educational opportunities which gave us exposure to life outside of our respective communities. These opportunities and experiences changed the trajectory of our lives and brought us to where we are today. We feel strongly about the promise that education holds and wanted to provide others with the same opportunity and exposure that we were given.”
Ken joined Merck 1992 and held positions of increasing responsibility, including General Counsel, President and Chief Executive Officer. He is currently Executive Chairman of Merck’s board of directors. Under Ken’s leadership, Merck delivered innovative lifesaving medicines and vaccines as well as long-term and sustainable value to its multiple stakeholders. Ken substantially increased Merck’s investment in research, including early research, while refocusing the organization on the launch and growth of key products that provide far-reaching benefits to society. He also led the formation of philanthropic and other initiatives that build on Merck’s 130-year legacy. General Catalyst announced that Ken would join the venture capital firm as Chairman, Health Assurance Initiatives in October.
During his 2013 ALI Annual Meeting speech, Ken aptly described the work of the ALI as such, “The law is not simply a form of logical or deductive reasoning. The content of the rules matters. The methods by which the rules are developed matters. This is where The American Law Institute has made countless important contributions.”
In addition to his service as an ALI member and on ALI’s Council, Ken sits on the boards of PhRMA, Weill Cornell Medicine, Exxon Mobil Corporation, Catalyst, the National Constitution Center, and Cornerstone Christian Academy in Philadelphia, PA. He is co-founder and co-chair of OneTen, a coalition of leading organizations committed to upskilling, hiring, and promoting one million Black Americans into family-sustaining jobs. OneTen is committed to facilitating a meaningful, measurable, and lasting impact on racial and economic justice. Ken also is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, The Business Council, the American Bar Association, and a Fellow of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Additionally, Ken is co-chair of the Legal Services Corporation’s Leaders Council.
As a strong advocate for social justice and economic inclusion, Ken is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the Anti-Defamation League Courage Against Hate Award, the Botwinick Prize in Business Ethics from Columbia Business School, the Harvard Law School Association Award, the Legend in Leadership Award from the Yale School of Management, the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund National Equal Justice Award, and the National Minority Quality Forum’s Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2018, Ken was named one of the World’s Greatest Leaders by Fortune magazine and also was named one of TIME’s 100 Most Influential People, and again made that list this year. In 2019, he became the first recipient of the Forbes Lifetime Achievement Award for Healthcare. In 2021, his peers named Ken Chief Executive magazine’s CEO of the Year.
Andréa has also served on multiple boards, including the Vickie and Jack Farber Institute for Neuroscience at Jefferson Health, the Ellis Marsalis Center for Music, Pratt Institute in New York, and Amsale Couture. Her professional affiliations include the American Society of Interior Designers, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Cornerstone Christian Academy, and The HistoryMakers. She is a long-time volunteer and supporter of the American Heart Association and recently joined the Southeastern Pennsylvania Board of Directors.
Andréa and Ken have two children, Lauren and James.
Roberta Cooper Ramo is well-known to The American Law Institute and its members, serving on the ALI Council (beginning in 1997) and as the Institute’s president from 2008 to 2017. Although Roberta’s leadership and support of the Institute has been easy to see as she presided over numerous Annual Meetings and Council meetings, participated on projects, led committees, and welcomed members to the Institute, we are also thankful to Dr. Barry Ramo’s ongoing support of the Institute as he and Roberta have been partners in career, community and charitable engagement, and family for more than 50 years.
A Colorado native, Barry attended the University of Colorado in Boulder and received his medical degree from the University of Colorado School of Medicine. This is where Roberta and Barry met. She was an undergraduate student majoring in Italian and philosophy, and Barry was in his final year of medical school. As Barry describes it, they were clearly meant to be, “Roberta and I met on a blind date and got married three months later! As fate would have it, Roberta was admitted to the University of Chicago Law School and I matched with my first choice of internship also at the U of C. Both selected before we met. I fell in love with Roberta on our first date. Aside from her beauty and intellect, the ardor was particularly flamed when she ate very little of her roast beef and demurely asked the starving medical student, ‘Would you like the rest?’ That settled it.”
After Barry completed his internal medicine residency at the University of Chicago and Roberta graduated from the University of Chicago Law School as one of only six women in the class, their next stop was North Carolina. Barry was in the Cardiology Department at Duke University and Roberta sought her first job as a lawyer. She quickly learned that finding employment as a woman lawyer was nearly impossible. She explained, “It was a series from nonresponses to outright rejections. It never occurred to me to stop looking for work. But without the help of the dean of the University of Chicago Law school at the time (Phil Neal, an ALI member) I might still be looking.” For one job application, the lawyer was impressed with her credentials and thought she was Robert A. Ramo. When he found out “Robert” was “Roberta,” he said their firm would never hire a woman.
She eventually found a job with the Ford Foundation, then spent two years teaching constitutional law at historically black Shaw University in Raleigh at the height of the civil rights movement. On her first job experiences and lessons she carried forward through her career, Roberta said, “I was lucky enough to be in the company of first-rate lawyers. I learned to make sure I understood and verified the facts and to never do anything that didn’t seem quite right in any way.”
Roberta and Barry spent some time in San Antonio before eventually moving to Roberta’s hometown of Albuquerque. There, she began working at the Rodey law firm and, after stints in sole practice, became a shareholder at Modrall Sperling where she has been in practice for the last 30 years. Barry partnered with two other cardiologists to launch what would become the New Mexico Heart Institute. “I loved New Mexico and was offered an opportunity to both be in private practice and to teach at the UNM Medical School,” Barry said of this, which would be their final move. “We thought it was a wonderful place to raise our children.”
In 1991, Roberta was elected to The American Law Institute and to the ALI Council in 1997. Although she has been a dedicated member of the ALI for 30 years, her dedication to the ALI’s mission and its projects is most apparent during her 10 years as ALI president. During her presidency, The American Law Institute initiated 11 Restatements, including the first Restatement of American Indian Law, five Principles projects, as well as a project to revise the sexual assault provisions of the Model Penal Code. Under her leadership, six Restatements, three Principles, and the project to revise the Sentencing provisions of the Model Penal Code were completed. In addition, Roberta has served on numerous ALI committees, as an Adviser to ALI projects, and led the ALI Council and membership through countless difficult debates, including through the groundbreaking discussions on the death penalty during the Sentencing project.
The Ramos explained why it was important to them to contribute to ALI’s Second Century campaign, saying, “We both believe that the American Democracy depends upon an effective judicial system and to fairness in its application. The work of the ALI in living up to its mission is more important now than ever. Without independent financial support, it cannot continue to do its deeply important work.” Roberta then added her thoughts about the Institute’s next 100 years, “I hope the ALI continues to do the work that is important to American society, controversial or not. And I hope that its culture of civil discourse on even the most controversial issues leads the rest of the country back to that kind of behavior from everyone, from leaders of our nation and members of congress and state governments to individual American citizens.”
The American Law Institute is tremendously thankful to both Roberta and Barry for their support of the Second Century campaign, and to Roberta for her terrific leadership of the Institute for so many years, as well as for being a true trailblazer for women’s rights and advancement. Barry and Roberta still live in New Mexico. They have two children, Joshua and Jennifer, and three grandchildren, Carlos, Rafael and Aurelia.
In addition to her service to ALI, Roberta previously served as president of the American Bar Association from 1995 to 1996, the first woman in history to lead the largest nationwide organization of attorneys (she was presented the ABA Medal in 2015). She is the only lawyer to serve as both President of the ABA and the ALI. She is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of both the American College of Trust and Estate Counsel and the American Bar Foundation, and also serves as a panel member for the American Arbitration Association. In 2013, Roberta was elected Board Chair of Think New Mexico, a non-partisan think tank, and she serves as a member of the Board of the Santa Fe Opera and is a Past Chair of Albuquerque Economic Development.
Barry is a cardiologist for the New Mexico Heart Institute, and holds medical professorships at the University of New Mexico and Duke University. He currently oversees the growth and development of the New Mexico Heart Institute Foundation and is the Medical Director of New Heart Cardiac Rehabilitation Center. He is also the medical editor at KOAT-TV.
Conrad and Marsha Harper are far from strangers to The American Law Institute. Conrad was elected to ALI membership in 1977 and to ALI Council in 1985. He served as Second Vice President from 1998 to 2000 and as First Vice President from 2000 to 2004, taking Council Emeritus status in 2011. In his nearly 44 years of service to the Institute, Conrad has attended more than 100 Annual Meetings, Council meetings, and project meetings, often accompanied by Marsha.
“I was grateful and proud to be part of an institution whose goals are noble and whose means are exemplary,” said Conrad about his election to the Institute. “The work of the ALI is central to improving the law in the never-ending quest for all of us to live in a just and ordered society. In framing general statements of our mature judgment of the best legal rules and the best legal principles, we help all branches of government, organizations, and individuals to conduct themselves and interact with others in a rationally predictable and fair manner.”
Conrad received his bachelor’s degree from Howard University in 1962 before graduating from Harvard Law School in 1965. Marsha received her bachelor’s degree from Newton College of the Sacred Heart (now Boston College) in 1964 and studied at New York University. The couple wed in 1965. Conrad went to work for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund in New York, and Marsha worked as a caseworker at Frances Schervier Home and Hospital.
In 1971, Conrad joined Simpson Thacher, becoming the firm’s first African American partner in 1974. At that time, Marsha was serving as the Executive Director of the Westchester Putnam chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union. She later served on the New York State Board of the ACLU.
When asked about the call to service that she and Conrad both feel, Marsha explained, “I believe—both of us believe—our rights, privileges, and duties require constant attention and support. As young adults in the 60s, we participated in demonstrations for civil rights. We saw at firsthand the world could be changed by mobilized citizens. Through the years we have served in and worked with civil rights organizations because we know freedoms are not free. They endure and expand through organized effort.”
Marsha is an Eucharistic Lay Minister and has been an executive and consultant to nonprofit organizations. She was the Deployment Officer for the Episcopal Diocese of Washington, served on the Board of the Virginia Theological Seminary, and was on the faculty of the CREDO Institute. She is a Vestry member of the parish she and Conrad attend. Her memberships include the Brontë Society and the Edith Wharton Society.
Conrad has been Legal Adviser of the U.S. Department of State and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague. This service and his practice in international law proved invaluable to ALI when he served as a Counselor on the Restatement of the Law Fourth, Foreign Relations Law of the U.S., and as an Adviser on Principles of Transnational Rules of Civil Procedure and Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments.
In 1990, Conrad was the first African American elected President of the New York City Bar Association, where he worked to increase diversity within the association’s committees and governance. He has been Co-Chair of the national Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. Conrad was the first African American appointed to the Harvard Corporation, Harvard University’s highest governing body, serving from 2000 to 2005. He has served as an officer or on the board of numerous organizations, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New York Public Library, the William Nelson Cromwell Foundation, and the American Philosophical Society. He is a former Chancellor of the Episcopal Diocese of New York and a member of the American College of Trial Lawyers, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Council on Foreign Relations. He and Marsha are life members of the Jane Austen Society of North America.
Marsha and Conrad have two sons, Warren and Adam.
The Harpers explained why it was important to them to contribute to the ALI at this time, saying, “We want to help assure the financial strength of the ALI so that it can continue to work on projects which may be controversial and not attractive to outside donors. The ALI’s independence is essential to its integrity.” Conrad continued, “Of course, I cannot foresee specifics but I hope the ALI’s next hundred years exceed even the first hundred, borrowing the words of 1923, in promoting clarification and simplification of the law and its better adaption to social needs, securing the better administration of justice, and encouraging and carrying on scholarly and scientific legal work.”
The ALI is forever grateful for Conrad’s time and wisdom through the years and to Conrad and Marsha for their generosity in ensuring that ALI may continue our work for another century.
At the 2017 Annual Meeting, ALI’s Henry J. Friendly Medal was presented to Conrad. Established in memory of Judge Friendly and endowed by his former law clerks, the Friendly Medal is not awarded on an annual basis but reserved for recipients who are considered especially worthy of receiving it. The Medal recognizes contributions to the law in the tradition of Judge Friendly and the Institute and is not limited to ALI members or those associated with its projects.